Matrix, evaluative, center weighted, partial, spot.
These are the names of some of the more common metering patterns that you’ll find on your camera.
Program, automatic, aperture priority, shutter priority, manual.
These are the names of some of the more common exposure modes that you’ll find on your camera.
Your camera meter measures brightness and each metering pattern measures brightness differently based on the area of influence of the metering pattern.
When you make an exposure you turn the brightness that you metered off of into a tonality on your light sensitive material (digital sensor, film, etc.).
In order to get the best picture that you can possibly get you should meter the brightness of what’s important to you and adjust your exposure to get the tonality that you want.